"Russia's FSB has thwarted activities of a cross-regional IS cell, participants of which intended to conduct subversive terror attacks in the Moscow region," the FSB said a statement to reporters.
Security forces in the Vladimir region arrested one citizen of a Central Asian state and seized a home-made explosive, along with other items and documents.
Footage released from the operation shows officers detaining a suspect, as well as a suspected explosive device being disarmed by a robot.
State news agency TASS said in a report that at least five people were arrested.
Wednesday's raid comes a month after another suspected IS operative was arrested in the Moscow region.
The FSB said the man was found in possession of an explosive device, a revolver, an IS flag and communications with other suspected plotters.